For immediate release
February 8, 2007
EXERCISE AND FLUID REPLACEMENT POSITION STAND NOW AVAILABLE
American College of Sports Medicine releases new, revised hydration recommendations
INDIANAPOLIS – The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) today released an updated Position Stand, " Exercise and Fluid Replacement", placing emphasis on customized or individualized hydration regimens and offering details on hydration before, during, and after exercise. The official ACSM pronouncement is published in the February 2007 issue of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise®, the official journal of the American College of Sports Medicine.
The new guidelines represent a summary of research and knowledge of fluid replacement (fluid-electrolyte needs) and the impact of fluid replacement on exercise performance and health. New to this version, a Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) is included to document the strength of evidence for each conclusion and recommendation. "Exercise and Fluid Replacement" replaces the prior statement published in 1996.
"One hydration guide does not fit every person, sport, or event," said Michael Sawka, Ph.D., FACSM, writing group chairman of the revised Position Stand. "This latest recommendation from ACSM provides tools to create customized fluid replacement programs that prevent excessive dehydration and hyponatremia."
Among other recommendations, the Position Stand emphasizes:
• Considerable variability exists among individuals, different physical activities, and environmental conditions. Each person will have different and variable water electrolyte losses, so each person should customize their hydration strategies. Sweat rates and electrolyte losses vary based on individual characteristics including, but not limited to, body weight, genetic predisposition, and metabolism. Also, air temperature, humidity, clothing, and the type of activity are factors in determining sweat losses and rehydration needs. Specific formulas and calculations are offered to guide individuals in assessing these factors.
• Fluid replacement before exercise, if needed, is meant to start the physical activity at "normal" body water and electrolyte levels. Fluid should be consumed several hours before exercise to enable fluid absorption and allow urine output to return to normal levels. ACSM recommends consuming beverages with sodium and/or salted snacks to help stimulate thirst or retain fluids.
• Fluid replacement during exercise is meant to prevent excessive dehydration (> 2% body weight reductions from baseline body weight) and avoid excessive changes in electrolyte balance to avert compromised performance. The amount and rate will depend on the individual and the activity (accounting for opportunity to drink). The guidelines note that consuming beverages containing electrolytes and carbohydrates often provides more benefits than consuming water alone.
• Fluid replacement after exercise is meant to fully replace any fluid and electrolyte losses. If time permits, regular meals and beverages will restore normal hydration levels. The speed with which rehydration is needed and the magnitude of fluid-electrolyte deficits will determine if an aggressive rehydration program is merited.
The American College of Sports Medicine is the largest sports medicine and exercise science organization in the world. More than 20,000 international, national, and regional members are dedicated to advancing and integrating scientific research to provide educational and practical applications of exercise science and sports medicine.
NOTE: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise® is the official journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, and is available from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins at 1-800-638-6423. For a print copy of " Exercise and Fluid Replacement" (Vol. 39, No. 2, pages 377-390) or to speak with a leading sports medicine expert on the topic, contact the Department of Communications and Public Information at 317-637-9200 ext. 127. Visit ACSM online at http://www.acsm.org. The conclusions outlined in this news release are those of the researchers only, and should not be construed as an official statement of the American College of Sports Medicine.